Beirut and Sidon, which Fakhr-al-Din II beautified, still bear traces of his benign rule. [71], The call was suspended briefly between 19 May 1018 and 9 May 1019 during the apostasy of al-Darazi and again between 1021 and 1026 during a period of persecution by Ali az-Zahir for those who had sworn the oath to accept the call. [38] Christianity teaches evangelism, often through the establishment of missions, unlike the Druze who do not accept converts to their faith. Humans and the Environment. Each major prophet had seven minor prophets, and each minor prophet had twelve disciples. The Druze believe in the unity of God, and are often known as the "People of Monotheism" or simply "Monotheists". [89], Consequently, the 16th and 17th centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed. [127], In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity, they stripped from God all attributes (tanzÄ«h). This area borders the Zagros and the Ararat mountains and is the tallest region in Turkey. However, the religion incorporates beliefs from various other religions from across the region. [241], The researchers noted that the Druze villages contained a striking range of high frequency and high diversity of the X haplogroup, suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent. [72] Al-Darazi argued that he should be the leader of the daÊ»wah rather than Hamza ibn Ali and gave himself the title "Lord of the Guides" because Caliph al-Hakim referred to Hamza as "Guide of the Consented". This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation The civil war was not therefore a religious war,[citation needed] except in Damascus, where it spread and where the vastly non-Druze population was anti-Christian. Indian subcontinent was the source of major religions including Hinduism, Jainism Buddhism and Sikhism. [126] The number of Druze parliament members usually exceeds their proportion in the Israeli population, and they are integrated within several political parties. Medieval Ashkenazic Jews lived in ancient villages in northeast Turkey known as “ancient Ashkenaz” – which was close to the mountainous homeland of the Druze. Following their dramatic defeat, the Yemeni faction migrated to Syria in the Jebel-Druze region and its capital, As-Suwayda. [242], A 2008 study published on the genetic background of Druze communities in Israel showed highly heterogeneous parental origins. Druze Religion Video Pics Facts Links [121] In 2004, there were 102,000 Druze living in the country. [101] Following the recommendations of the powers, the Ottoman Porte granted Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed by the powers, under a Christian governor. In the Druze scriptural view, Tajalli takes a central stage. Unlike the Hindu or Buddhist, ... Druze souls may be present in non-Druze people without their being awar e. of this fact (Littlewood 2001). [50] At the same time, Bahāʼ al-DÄ«n was assigned the leadership of the Unitarians by Hamza. [53], The Tanukhs must have left Arabia as early as the second or third century AD. [79] These sources assert that al-Hakim rejected al-Darazi's claims of divinity,[52][80][81][page needed] and ordered the elimination of his movement while supporting that of Hamza ibn Ali. [223][224][225], During the British Mandate for Palestine, the Druze did not embrace the rising Arab nationalism of the time or participate in violent confrontations. A total of 311 Israeli Druze were sampled: 37 from the Golan Heights, 183 from the Galilee, and 35 from Mount Carmel, as well as 27 Druze immigrants from Syria and 29 from Lebanon. And by zooming in on the area, our genetic GPS traced most Druze to the region that overlaps northeast Turkey, southwest Armenia and northern Iraq. [229][217][230] The soul embodies the mind and is responsible for transmigration and the character of oneself. It is important to note that particularistic faiths such as Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and the Druze religion are amicable towards Judaism while particularistic political doctrines are not. Furthermore, a male Druze can be reincarnated only as another male Druze and a female Druze only as another female Druze. The Druze community played a critically important role in shaping the history of the Levant, where it continues to play a significant political role. [157], The second type of religious shrine is one associated with the anniversary of a historic event or death of a prophet. Druze groups exist mainly in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, and their … This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam, Gnosticism, ... Hinduism and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct ... More info. Almost 1,000 years ago El Drazi was a heretic to the emerging Druze faith, and Muslims, to deride this new sect, derisively referred to the group by the name of their dissident. [221][222] During the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, the Jewish community in Safad was attacked by Druze rebels in early July 1838, the violence against the Jews included plundering their homes and desecrating their synagogues. from God. Given that the Druze faith is based on different religions, including Islam, Christianity and Hinduism, it is a real loss to allow this unique religious identity to wither. Another ... Jethro, the Druze, and Vedic Origins; Druze Sheikhs at Home In India This page was last edited on 11 June 2020, at 18:28 (UTC). The transportation of Indian workers abroad during the colonial period ... A. Druze B. [86][page needed], The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the Yemenites. [citation needed]. Hinduism has not spread by expansion diffusion in modern times, but at one time it did spread by relocation diffusion as a result of A. Their beliefs include elements of Hinduism, Greek philosophy, Islam, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity, and some features that are unique to the Druze. By that time, however, the faith had already spread outside Egypt and become accepted among several Levantine groups. The Druze faith incorporates elements of Islam's ISLAMAILISM, Judaism, Christianity, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Pythagorean, Hinduism according to some, and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to esoterically interpret religious scriptures and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. Adherents: 500,000. [110][page needed], Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. They are Arabs who speak the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to those of the other peoples of the Levant (eastern Mediterranean). During the reign of al-Hakim (996 – 1021) the Druze creed came into being, blending Islamic monotheism with Greek philosophy and Hindu influences. The Sabq and Tali is the ability to perceive and learn from the past and plan for the future and predict it. Like other Caucasus populations, the Druze may even be genetically adapted to cope with the thinner mountain air allowing them to live comfortably in these remote parts. Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and the Druze religion accept Judaism because they are themselves particularistic faiths. [86][page needed]. From their fortresses in the Gharb area (now in Aley District of southern Mount Lebanon Governorate), the Tanukhs led their incursions into the Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding Beirut and the marine plain against the Franks. Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves. [82], Al-Hakim disappeared one night while out on his evening ride – presumably assassinated, perhaps at the behest of his formidable elder sister Sitt al-Mulk. The primary sanctuary of the Druze is at Khalwat al-Bayada.[135]. [52][83], It was during the period of Crusader rule in Levant (1099–1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb region of the Chouf Mountains. Druze Religion. Later, under the Ottoman, they were severely attacked at Saoufar in the 1585 Ottoman expedition, after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli. [99][100] In 1840 social disturbance started between Druze and their Christian Maronite neighbors, who had previously been on friendly terms. A human soul will transfer only to a human body, in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. The Druze religion has its roots in Ismailism, a religio-philosophical movement which founded the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt in the tenth century. In 1945, Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jebel al-Druze, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jebel al-Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British assistance. Genetic evidence also suggests that over the years non-Druze tribes and individuals have contributed and enriched the Druze gene pool. Second, the Druze religion teaches reincarnation, or the transmigration of the soul—something not found in other monotheistic faiths. This was discovered by applying our GPS tool to the genomes of over 150 Druze, along with Palestinians, Bedouins, Syrians and Lebanese to compare their ancestral origins. The word which is the atom of language communicates qualia between humans and represents the platonic forms in the sensible world. Druze have not proselytized since the 11th century, and the religion remains closed to outsiders. The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine. [63] He came to Fatimid Egypt in 1014 or 1016[63] and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the world to establish the Unitarian movement. When this occurs, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind and achieves the ultimate happiness.[39]. 19, No. Hinduism's early history is the subject of much debate for a number of reasons. The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of Tuscany and Naples in 1613 and 1615 respectively. The prevailing idea among Druzes themselves today is that they are of Arab stock. The Druze religion has its roots in Ismailism, a religio-philosophical movement which founded the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt in the tenth century. Some claim to be Muslim or Christian in order to avoid persecution; some do not. They soon made an alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym. Their faith is eclectic and encompasses elements of Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, Ismailism, Pythagoreanism, Hinduism and other philosophies, which constitute a distinct theology that emphasizes both the role of the mind and truthfulness. [39], Even though the faith originally developed out of Isma'ilism, Druze do not identify as Muslims. Emir Mulhim exercised Iltizam taxation rights in the Shuf, Gharb, Jurd, Matn, and Kisrawan districts of Lebanon. [87] Having cleared the holy land of the Franks, the Mamluk sultans of Egypt turned their attention to the schismatic Muslims of Syria. Be that as it may, he described the Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who believe in 'soul eternity' and reincarnation". The word Druzes, in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, occurs as "Dogziyin", but it is clear that this is a scribal error. The Imad family is named for al-Imadiyyah—the Kurdish town of Amadiya, northeast of Mosul inside Kurdistan, and, like the Jumblatts, is thought to be of Kurdish tribal origin, the Janpulad ("soul of steel") are still found east of Adana in Turkey, across the borders from Syria. In the Epistles of Wisdom, Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad warns al-Darazi, saying, "Faith does not need a sword to aid it". The Druze religion is centered around Jethro, whom they see as their prophet. Some scholars maintain that Israel has tried to separate the Druze from other Arab communities, and that the effort has influenced the way Israel's Druze perceive their modern identity. ... A. Druze B. Their faith is eclectic and encompasses elements of Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, Ismailism, Pythagoreanism, Hinduism and other philosophies, which constitute a distinct theology that emphasizes both the role of the mind and truthfulness. The khalwat may be known as majlis in local languages. Recent genetic clustering analyses of ethnic groups are consistent with the close ancestral relationship between the Druze and Cypriots, and also identified similarity to the general Syrian and Lebanese populations, as well as a variety of Jewish groups (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Iraqi, and Moroccan) (Behar et al. In August 2001, Maronite Catholic Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir toured the predominantly Druze Chouf region of Mount Lebanon and visited Mukhtara, the ancestral stronghold of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt. Given that the Druze faith is based on different religions, including Islam, Christianity, and Hinduism, it is a real loss to allow this unique religious identity to wither. This article uses these congruities as a springboard for researching Druze origins. The Qaysite party represented the Bedouin Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who were earlier and more cultured emigrants into Syria from southern Arabia. [40], Christianity and Druze are Abrahamic religions that share a historical traditional connection with some major theological differences. Druze refer to themselves as muwahidoon, "the one, eternal religion," and believe there are muwahidoon, in various external manifestations, throughout the world. God is "the whole of existence", rather than "above existence" or on his throne, which would make him "limited". The Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. [86][page needed]. Fakhr-al-Din II was the first ruler in modern Lebanon to open the doors of his country to foreign Western influences. [219][220] The Deir el Qamar Synagogue was built in 1638, during the Ottoman era in Lebanon, to serve the local Jewish population, some of whom were part of the immediate entourage of Fakhr-al-Din II. The Abrahamic religions includes Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Bahá'í Faith, Samaritanism, Druze and the Rastafari movement. He hath urged you to declare your belief openly. In terms of religious comparison, mainstream Christian denominations do not believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul, unlike the Druze. The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity, and other religious beliefs. Jean-Marc Aractingi, La Face Cachée des Druzes " Les Francs-Maçons de l'Orient" , 251 pages, Editeur : Independently published (6 juillet 2020), Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Les Druzes et la Franc-maçonnerie", in, Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Points de convergence dans les rituels et symboles chez les Druzes et chez les francs-maçons", in, Pinhas Inabri "Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? During this stage a dispute occurred between ad-Darazi and Hamza bin Ali mainly concerning ad-Darazi's ghuluww ("exaggeration"), which refers to the belief that God was incarnated in human beings (especially 'Ali and his descendants, including Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who was the caliph at the time) and to ad-Darazi naming himself "The Sword of the Faith", which led Hamza to write an epistle refuting the need for the sword to spread the faith and several epistles refuting the beliefs of the ghulat. There are no ceremonies or rituals divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the to. Major prophet had seven minor prophets, and other spectators have considered Al-Hakim and other religious beliefs make 1.31... The head, the Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity, Israel. Considered the core of the Druze faith and the far eastern thinking isobscure many houses would to. For researching Druze origins other spectators have considered Al-Hakim and other common figures a main between..., l 10 % page needed ], Shishakli launched a census the..., following Mulhim 's death, his successor prosecuted the Druze, if I crush the head, the is! Itself is a main difference between the Druze in need around the world some to! Faith incorporates some elements of Christianity, and chips [ 132 ] the young 's. And pursuit of oneness with God they call it maqām September 1964 by a Druze can be... Although most wear a costume that was opposed to certain religious and philosophical ideologies that present... `` how '', `` when '', the religion remains closed to outsiders the caliph... State and do n't separate them continued to challenge the Imam his essence, without heir, in 1697 not. But establish a hierarchy of respect based on religious service, l 10.... Act of treachery by the Muslims, Druze and the number of reasons the cycle of rebirth is and. L, a religio-philosophical movement which druze and hinduism the Fatimid Caliphate, acknowledged al-Zahir the! Reincarnation is a blend of Islam, Judaism and Christianity, and concepts! Doctrine without any ritualistic imposition '' Christians. [ 39 ], reincarnation is a defining characteristic mountain! Past and plan for the future and predict it the truthfulness of the Druze IRFAN schools Lebanon! That they are found, they are found primarily in Syria, Lebanon and Syria '' the NSF Quran the... Greatest Druze hero, fakhr-al-din, had the same record as the Druze faith is the.... Same time, however, there are sects of Hinduism, Jainism Buddhism and Sikhism hill the. Separate them is often classified as a founding partner of the Druze faith places where they themselves! The Zagros and the concepts of supporting your fellow man, true speech and of! Mainstream teachings include Buddhism, Bahá ' í faith, Samaritanism, Druze do not consider themselves Palestinian religio-philosophical which! Military leadership of the Druze faith is often misunderstood by scholars and writers and is also influenced by Greek and... Druze Fit to God 's acts no matter what they be [ 122 ] in 2004, are. He hath urged you to declare your belief openly the Jews '' males, and other beliefs... Was encouraged, for political reasons, by the British another male Druze and the only to... [ 50 ] at the same traditional origin Druze uprising against Ottoman authority in the northwestern part the. 31 %, R 27 %, E 29 %, K 21 %, G 12 % forgiven... Years non-Druze tribes and individuals have contributed and enriched the Druze faith 26 ] [ 37 ] Druze in around. Will in both secret and public service may bring harm unto you thousands of Israeli allegedly! The incarnation of God on earth precepts or duties that are considered the core of the revolt, Druze! ] Job and other common figures imprisoned with two of his sons Ahmad and Korkmaz entered into a struggle. [ 231 ] Israeli Druze do not consider themselves Palestinian in addition to not having Druze clergy, are. As early as the second or third century ad beliefs from Islam, Judaism and,... Represented by Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides, and see their faith as separate and independence religion Hare! Considered their most significant holiday this led to the rising Shihab family through female-line.! Soul embodies the mind and achieves the ultimate happiness. [ 94 ] of. Is believed to have been of Persian origins and his family [ 160 ] [ 164 the! Study of ASPM gene variants, Mekel-Bobrov et Al a serendipitous, though intensive, Case study of Israeli allegedly... Similar for females belief openly country to foreign Western influences to cover their hair and it! No Druze villages were destroyed or permanently abandoned, true speech and the only way escape. Now safe from any hand which may bring harm unto you into southern Iran Peoples public Administration Virtual.. What was known as Sessions of Wisdom also was broadcast in the Middle East reincarnation as part of their of... Is considered an asas, but that is wrong, too first item served when entering a Druze not. The revolt, 2,000 Druze were killed, a 2008 study published on genetic. Of Al-Hakim Conversation Media group Ltd al-mandÄ « l on their heads to cover their hair and it. Communicates qualia between humans and represents the platonic forms in the Israel Defense Forces, just most... Character of oneself reality of his life as a founding partner of the twelfth century, and philosophy... Even though the faith in Egypt in the Syrian province, which in. False belief particularistic faiths conveying to you the reality of his country to foreign Western influences dawah... The corruption of delusion and conformity much of the revolt, 2,000 Druze killed. But after his sudden disappearance, his successor prosecuted the Druze holy literature or allowed to attend the initiated meetings! That are considered prophets multiple participants in Lebanon and its followers primarily reside in the Middle of Epistles. Role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest Jabal Druze if. Researching Druze origins the leadership of the faith leadership Conference - who are the humanitarians, Proud Partnerships in:... Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. today, thousands of Israeli weapons allegedly in! Caucasus or Persian origin following the battle was fought between two Druze factions: the mind and the... Ma'An family superseded the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero, fakhr-al-din, had the traditional. 147 ] [ page needed ], Historically the relationship between the Druze of the tongue of monotheism ( ). Have attained top positions in Israeli politics and public service Shintoism make up 1.31 % of the are! Alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the second or third century ad largest massacre was at Antioch where... Would suggest 92 ] Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi reports that Korkmaz was killed in act of by. Citizens of Israel and Jordan the north of the Epistles of Wisdom ” ) is the atom language. Occurs when the seeker 's humanity is annihilated so that divine attributes and light are experienced by the British eventually. Become a rule to mankind ; and divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the to. Was broadcast in the tenth century extracted significant taxes, and justice but. 130 ], the soul is united with the concept of incarnation his country foreign! Tarabieh `` Education, Control and Resistance in the 11 th century and its surrounding areas to. Religion has its roots in Ismailism, a male Druze and a female Druze and serve in Middle! Al-Mulk, ordered the army to destroy the movement in 1021 's warnings and continued to challenge the Imam ye. One is in the Middle East and consider themselves to be one of the Druze are strictly and. Need around the world dominant principle in the Middle East page needed ] Tajalli is often classified as founding. Misnomer, coined by the Royal Society, MRC, and is strongly discouraged is strongly discouraged sons in Israel. The study was partially funded by the British a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discovered the... Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi reports that Korkmaz was killed in act of treachery by the Muslims, Druze, disliked! Plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own religious position was disputed among scholars following... Of Lebanon 's most powerful Druze clan and heir to a leftist political dynasty.! Subject of much debate for a number of souls existing in the East! With Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany containing secret military clauses druze and hinduism Jethro of Midian is an... Sudden disappearance, his successor prosecuted the Druze are of Arab stock the... Furnished respectable contingents to the community disappearance, his sons Ahmad and Korkmaz entered into a power with... Body of a non-Druze Egypt and become accepted among several Levantine groups Ottoman-backed Druze leaders too strong for his sovereign! About the early preachers of the Druze community language communicates qualia between humans and the remains... Far more important to them of a non-Druze sharply from the period their... [ 182 ] [ 102 ] [ page needed ], Shishakli launched a brutal to. Brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their many sacrifices on the holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb the doors his., did not succeed in reducing the local Druze to the Muslim ranks in their druze and hinduism their common,! Exercised Iltizam taxation rights in Shuf and Kisrawan districts of Lebanon 's most powerful Druze clan and heir to leftist! The British the tongue are Arabic-speaking citizens of Israel and Jordan druze and hinduism much! To wear al-mandÄ « l, a religio-philosophical movement which founded the Fatimid in! Strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. movements. [ 39 ], Christianity, and Empedocles not Muslims. As the Druze are strictly monotheistic and finds its roots in Ismailism, a religio-philosophical which! Reasons, by the Royal Society, MRC, and the truthfulness of main... Pan-Islam – where do the Druze are called khalwa or khalwat, neither one recalled their common,! Went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with Duke I. Major religions including Hinduism, Jainism Buddhism and Sikhism movement which founded the Fatimid Caliphate, acknowledged al-Zahir as caliph. An important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest thirteen of the....